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Fabulous Facts on the Orchestra

Going to the orchestra, the opera, musical theater or Mass is a past time that many people enjoy. Music plays a big role in many people’s lives, whether it’s listening or participating. The previously mentioned groups all consist of a band. So, what is a band?

The word orchestra comes from ancient Greek. It originally meant the semicircular space in front of the stage in a theater where the chorus danced or sang in a Greek play. Later, in the early seventeenth century, when the first Italian operas were presented, a small group of musicians accompanied the singers and sat in a similar space in front of the stage. Thus the word Orchestra meant musicians.

There are different types of bands. The size of the group can be large or small, and they are usually led by a conductor.

Great bands consists of about a hundred musicians, they can be seen in most major cities and perform in various settings. They are often called:

1. symphonic Band because of the symphonies they play, which require a large number of musicians. They also play a variety of other music.

2. Philharmonic Orchestra meaning “loving harmony of music”

Smaller bands They come in different types and styles and include:

1. Chamber orchestra: This band usually consists of about twenty players who can comfortably perform in the great hall of a castle, hence the name. The music performed consists of eighteenth-century works (e.g. Bach and Mozart) and more modern works.

2. Small band: This orchestra is slightly larger than the chamber orchestra and plays more modern works.

3. Theater bands: These orchestras accompany musical theatre, opera, ballet and can consist of up to sixty players.

4. String band: This band consists of only about twenty string instruments. The music is classical and modern.

5. Jazz and concert bands which play and record light music.

It is interesting to note that a group of wind players playing together is usually called an orchestra, e.g. Symphonic Band

So what instruments does a typical Symphony Orchestra have?

There are four main groups of instruments that play in a symphony orchestra.

String instruments they occupy two-thirds or three-quarters of the entire band. They consist of approximately 32 violins (first and second), 12 violas, 10 cellos and 8 double basses, and one or two harps.

Woodwind instruments they consist of flutes, clarinets, oboes and bassoons. There are usually about 2-4 players playing each of these instruments. One player of each instrument type can double on the higher or lower version of the given instrument, e.g.

Brass instruments it consists of trumpets, horns, trombones, tubas, and sometimes a cornet. The numbers vary depending on the work done. Some modern works may use 6 trumpets, 8 horns, 4 trombones, and 2 or 3 tubas.

Percussion instruments It consists of 4-5 players. The instruments are varied, they can be shaken, rubbed or tapped. In symphonic bands, for example, timpani, tom-tam, cymbals, triangle, tambourines and various drums are used.

Where do these musicians sit?

A typical symphony orchestra’s seating is semicircular (from the original meaning of Orchestra) with a center front conductor on a raised stand. The layout may vary depending on the wire used.

The violins are placed to the left of the conductor, in order the first violins near the edge of the stage and the second violins next to the first. the cellos (stage) and violas sit to the right of the conductor, behind him is the double bass. The woodwinds sit in the middle, the flutes (front) and clarinets (back) to the left, and the oboes (front) and bassoons (back) to the right. The brass sit behind the woodwinds. And the percussionists sit at the back of the band

What does the conductor do?

The conductor controls the orchestra with a baton and their arms. They indicate all kinds of things to the musicians, such as the speed of the music, the rhythm, the way of expression, how to play loud and soft, and how to place the instruments in the right place. The musicians are corrected on these aspects during the rehearsal. The principal violinist, who is the leader of the orchestra, is responsible for disciplining the musicians during the rehearsal.

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