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The Effects of Bureaucracy within the Life of a Clerk in Benito Perez Galdos’ Miau

The creator probes at the results of paperwork within the lifetime of a clerk, Don Ramon Villaamil, in Benito Perez Galdos’ Miau which was once written and printed in 1888. It is anchored at the sociological theories of Max Weber’s thought and purposes of paperwork (Gerth and Mills, 1961) and its disintegrating impact at the major persona and its repercussions within the multi-dimensional lifetime of the protagonist. In figuring out additional the unconventional, the scholar creator makes use of Hippolyte Taine’s three-pronged technique to the contextual find out about of a murals, in line with the facets of what he known as race, geographical and social milieu, and historic second (

Hence, to totally perceive the paperwork reflected within the novel, the creator strains first the historic, political and biographical lifetime of the writer and Spain within the 19th century. How a majority of these artefacts affected the creator to document vignettes of arduous truths within the society is remarkably fascinating to research.

The Spanish novelist and dramatist Benito Pérez Galdós (1843-1920) is perfect recognized for his masterly remedy of the huge landscape of Spanish society in a sequence of historic and recent novels.

Benito Pérez Galdós was once born on May 10, 1843, in Las Palmas, Canary Islands. Due to a inflexible upbringing he advanced right into a shy, quick-witted boy, fascinated with track, drama, and portray. He discovered English from an American lady whose illegitimate daughter, Sisita, was once his first cousin and youth love. One of Galdós’s maximum enduring remembrances involved his affection for Sisita and the brusque intervention of his mom, who despatched him away to Madrid in 1862 to review legislation.

In Madrid, Galdós felt irresistibly interested in the turmoil of town existence and shortly deserted his college classes for cafés, opera, theater, and lengthy strolls during the streets. Intent upon figuring out all categories and kinds of Spanish society, he frequented outlying districts, open-air markets, taverns, and tenement properties. By 1865 he had begun newspaper paintings. His articles on parliamentary periods in Las Cortes made that newspaper well-known.

Although Galdós was once a perspicacious journalist, his final intention was once to provide Spaniards now not just a coherent image in their day by day lives but additionally a imaginative and prescient of a brand new Spain, reborn spiritually, culturally, and economically. He believed the unconventional perfect suited this objective. In 1867 Galdós went to Paris, rediscovered the novels of Honoré de Balzac, and as soon as again in Spain completed his first novel, La sombra (1870), and started a 2d, La Fontana de ore (1867-1868).

Henceforth, apart from for his advocacy of liberal politics, Galdós lived immersed in literary process. He wrote nearly 100 novels and performs, that could be categorized into 3 teams. The first workforce comprises his 46 Episodios nacionales, historic novels starting with Trafalgar (1873) and finishing with Canovás (1912). They retell in tale shape stirring episodes of Nineteenth-century Spanish historical past and embrace Galdós’s conviction that the important thing to Spain’s provide and long term betterment is living in a important exam of the previous.

The 2d workforce comprises Galdós’s lifelike social novels, which divide into two subgroups. The first accommodates the Novelas de los angeles primera época (1867-1878). Among them are Doña Perfecta (1876) and Gloria (1876-1877), which boldly depict Spain’s provincial hypocrisy and non secular fanaticism. The 2d is made up of the 24 Novelas españolas contemporáneas, (1880-1915), which mark the adulthood of Galdós’s artwork. In such works as La de Bringas (1884), his four-volume masterpiece Fortunata y Jacinta (1886-1887), and Misericordia (1897), Galdós harmonized his hobby for reform with the artwork of making the semblance of truth. While treating many issues of Spanish existence, he didn’t sacrifice persona freedom to any social or ethical educating. Today, as then, his novels be offering a compelling imagen de los angeles vida.

The 3rd workforce is made up of Galdós’s performs. After writing novels for two decades, Galdós grew to become to the theater. In 1891 he recast his novel Realidad into discussion, staging it effectively the next 12 months. He produced 22 performs, of which La loca de los angeles casa (1893) and El abuelo (1904) are thought to be his perfect. The premiere of Electra (1901) unleashed a typhoon of controversy, incomes Galdós the hatred of Spain’s clergy and conservative elegance. Galdós was once an unique progressive of the Spanish theater. Reacting towards José Echegaray’s outdated romantic melodrama, he faced audiences with a frank portrayal of social conflicts. His performs expected the inventions of contemporary Spanish drama.

In 1897 Galdós was once elected to the Spanish Academy, and through 1912 he had transform utterly blind. Beset through monetary difficulties, he endured to jot down, even though his well being was once failing. He died on Jan. 4, 1920, in Madrid.

From the Galdos’ biography, information which can be mirrored within the novel Miau are his stunning and brilliant description of Madrid, the streets, the plazas, the church buildings, the home or even the puts of leisure such because the parks and theatres or opera properties that his ladies characters Senora Pura, Abelarda and Milagros Villaamil are keen on frequenting to turn their social standing. Likewise, the insolent and abusive Victor Cadalso has a semblance with that of radical and revolting perspectives of Galdos.

What is putting within the novel is the inclusion of many historic allusions and day by day executive bureaucratic machine which affected our protagonist within the novel and the domino impact to his circle of relatives. The historical past of 19th century Spain is on occasion thought to be through different writers because the century of insanity because of the gross results of bourgeoisie capitalism, political unrest, upward push and fall of 1 executive to every other and dependable civil conflict inside of Spain and her colonies within the Philippines and Cuba.

It is noteworthy to take a look at the tumultuous historical past of Spain throughout the 19th that may mirror additionally the divisive, despotic and unpeaceful milieu which our protagonist skilled by the hands of the egocentric bureaucrats.

In 1866, a rebellion led through Juan Prim was once suppressed, however it was once changing into an increasing number of transparent that the folks of Spain had been disillusioned with Isabella’s technique to governance. In 1868, the Glorious Revolution broke out when the progresista generals Francisco Serrano and Juan Prim revolted towards her, and defeated her moderado generals on the Battle of Alcolea. Isabella was once pushed into exile in Paris.

Revolution and anarchy broke out in Spain within the two years that adopted; it was once best in 1870 that the Cortes declared that Spain would have a king once more. As it grew to become out, this determination performed a very powerful position in European and global historical past, for a German prince’s candidacy to the Spanish throne and French opposition to him served because the fast cause for the Franco-Prussian War. Amadeus of Savoy was once decided on, and he was once duly topped King of Spain early the next 12 months.

Amadeus – a liberal who swore through the liberal charter the Cortes promulgated – was once confronted right away with the improbable activity of bringing the disparate political ideologies of Spain to 1 desk. He was once plagued through internecine strife, now not simply between Spaniards however inside of Spanish events.

Following the Hidalgo affair, Amadeus famously declared the folks of Spain to be ungovernable, and fled the rustic. In his absence, a central authority of radicals and Republicans was once shaped that declared Spain a republic.

The republic was once right away beneath siege from all quarters – the Carlists had been probably the most fast danger, launching a violent rebellion after their deficient appearing within the 1872 elections. There had been requires socialist revolution from the International Workingmen’s Association, revolts and unrest within the self sustaining areas of Navarre and Catalonia, and force from the Roman Catholic Church towards the fledgling republic.

Although the previous queen, Isabella II was once nonetheless alive, she identified that she was once too divisive as a pace-setter, and abdicated in 1870 in desire of her son, Alfonso, who was once duly topped Alfonso XII of Spain. After the tumult of the First Spanish Republic, Spaniards had been prepared to just accept a go back to steadiness beneath Bourbon rule. The Republican armies in Spain – that have been resisting a Carlist rebellion – pronounced their allegiance to Alfonso within the iciness of 1874-1875, led through Brigadier General Martinez Campos. The Republic was once dissolved and Antonio Canovas del Castillo, a depended on consultant to the king, was once named Prime Minister on New Year’s Eve, 1874. The Carlist rebellion was once put down vigorously through the brand new king, who took an energetic position within the conflict and impulsively received the make stronger of maximum of his countrymen.

A machine of turnos was once established in Spain during which the liberals, led through Práxedes Mateo Sagasta and the conservatives, led through Antonio Canovas del Castillo, alternated in keep an eye on of the federal government. A modicum of steadiness and financial growth was once restored to Spain throughout Alfonso XII’s rule. His demise in 1885, adopted through the assassination of Canovas del Castillo in 1897, destabilized the federal government.

Cuba rebelled towards Spain within the Ten Years’ War starting in 1868, ensuing within the abolition of slavery in Spain’s colonies within the New World. American pursuits within the island, coupled with considerations for the folks of Cuba, irritated family members between the 2 international locations. The explosion of the USS Maine introduced the Spanish-American War in 1898, during which Spain fared disastrously. Cuba received its independence and Spain misplaced its last New World colony, Puerto Rico, which at the side of Guam and the Philippines it ceded to the United States for 20 million bucks. In 1899, Spain offered its last Pacific islands-the Northern Mariana Islands, Caroline Islands and Palau-to Germany and Spanish colonial possessions had been decreased to Spanish Morocco, Spanish Sahara and Spanish Guinea, all in Africa.

The “disaster” of 1898 created the Generation of ’98, a bunch of statesmen and intellectuals who demanded alternate from the brand new executive. Anarchist and fascist actions had been on the upward thrust in Spain within the early 20th century. A rebellion in 1909 in Catalonia was once bloodily suppressed.

Spain’s neutrality in World War I allowed it to transform a provider of subject matter for all sides to its nice benefit, prompting an financial growth in Spain. The outbreak of Spanish influenza in Spain and in other places, together with a big financial slowdown within the post-war length, hit Spain in particular arduous, and the rustic went into debt. A significant employee’s strike was once suppressed in 1919.

Mistreatment of the Moorish inhabitants in Spanish Morocco resulted in an rebellion and the lack of this North African ownership apart from for the enclaves of Ceuta and Melilla in 1921. (See Abd el-Krim, Annual). In order to keep away from duty, King Alfonso XIII determined to make stronger the dictatorship of General Miguel Primo de Rivera, finishing the length of constitutional monarchy in Spain.

In joint motion with France, the Moroccan territory was once recovered (1925-1927), however in 1930 chapter and large unpopularity left the king no choice however to pressure Primo de Rivera to renounce. Disgusted with the king’s involvement in his dictatorship, the city inhabitants voted for republican events within the municipal elections of April 1931. The king fled the rustic with out abdicating and a republic was once established.

Though the unconventional ends with the suicide of Villaamil, his will for Spain for higher management and different advocacies are written as M.I.A.U. that stands for Morality, Income Tax, Additional Duties and Unification of the debt (Cohen, 1963: 145). It summarizes his non-public want for the whole ethical reformation of the federal government reliable and rank and document staff; instituting fee of private source of revenue tax through staff; further price lists for the goods of overseas investors and paying the nationwide debt through consolidating the entire provincial wishes and paying them best every year.

To analyze the sociological thought of paperwork within the novel, the scholar creator makes use of the Weberian Model which ideas are summarized thus: The final century noticed the perfection of the paperwork — a type of group that has been drastically a success and is the results of 1000’s of years of trial and mistake evolution. Max Weber defined the important thing traits of a paperwork:

  1. specification of jobs with detailed rights, tasks, obligations, scope of authority
  2. machine of supervision and subordination
  3. harmony of command
  4. in depth use of written paperwork
  5. coaching in task necessities and talents
  6. software of constant and whole laws (corporate handbook)
  7. assign paintings and rent workforce in line with competence and enjoy

In Miau, ideas appear glaring and common. However, they’re all innovations — the federal government places of work didn’t all the time have those options somewhat the other.

The narrator of the unconventional, 3rd particular person omniscient sees bureaucracies as inefficient, sluggish and normally unhealthy. When don Ramon Villaamil was once following up his imaginable reinstatement, he was once utterly dissatisfied to listen to false guarantees that he’s going to get again the location. For Villaamil was once already in his retirement when he changed into a “cesante” or “suspendido” The surprising alternate within the executive suspended all staff which don’t seem to be their allies, in line with favoritism. There would were no drawback had he served for 2 extra months. He can are living together with his pension to maintain the pretentious and spendthrift way of life of his spouse Dona Pura, his daughter Abelarda and his sister-in-law who all love to visit the opera area although they had been already begging as a result of Villaamil was once already penniless. In Weber’s time, they had been noticed as marvellously environment friendly machines that reliably completed their targets. And if truth be told, bureaucracies did transform drastically a success, simply outcompeting different group paperwork akin to circle of relatives companies and adhocracies. They additionally did a lot to introduce ideas of equity and equality of alternative into society, having a profound impact at the social construction of countries.

However, bureaucracies are higher for some duties than others. In explicit, bureaucracies don’t seem to be clearly just right within the Spanish executive. Officials abuse their government. Worst, unqualified officers and even clerks had been promoted now not at the deserves in their paintings however with the good individuals they know within the ministry. There are many cases within the novel when this immoral promotion was once practiced…

Then that thankless wretch, that ungrateful scoundrel, who was once a clerk in Office when I used to be Financial Inspector, fourth elegance, that shameless rogue Who through sheer audacity has were given himself promoted over my head and transform No lower than a governor, that guy has the indelicacy handy me two and a part Pesetas (Cohen, 1963: 15)

He was once already soliciting for the help of his former clerks when he was once suspended. And he concluded in pronouncing that there is not anything left on this planet however selfishness and ingratitude. He added every other clerk who was once promoted and were given building up annually..

“Take that clodhopper Montes, for example, who owes his career to me, Because I proposed his promotion in the central Auditory. Do you know He doesn’t even greet me in the street? He gives himself such airs that not Even the minister…And he’s going ahead all the time. They have just raised him t to fourteen thousand. He gets a rise every year. Nothing stops him. That’s what You gain by flattering and crawling. He does not understand the least thing About administration. All he can do is talk about shooting with the director And about the dogs…”

Almost discovering fault on account of his distress, Don Villaamil may just now not do the rest however to invite favour to their pals to apply up imaginable vacant publish the place he can paintings once more. This was once one of the vital weaknesses of Weberian Model of paperwork, he idea that the paperwork in his nation, Germany, and her flourishing business may also be likened to all different organizations. Weber concluded that a majority of these new large-scale organizations had been equivalent. Each was once a paperwork. Obviously, Villaamil appeared bureaucracyas a grimy phrase, suggesting purple tape, inefficiency, and officiousness. Bureaucracies can increase those options, particularly if authority is very centralized. The ultimate outcome for his imaginable reinstatement which he patiently waited must come from one prime place of work right down to the provincial place of work. The purple tape was once certainly vicious that significantly affected Villaamil. That of hatred to bureaucrats, the hypocrite clerks, the unworthy staff and the injustice of the federal government when he stated to Victor, his son-in-law:

“Yes, yes. There’s no beating you for bare-faced effrontery. Because you’ve got no shame'(livid with fury and swallowing his Bitterness) ‘you get everything you want. The world is at your feet Promotion at all costs, and devil take the hindmost!” (Cohen, 1963: 73)

With the entire bitterness, Villaamil stated that he would endure his misfortunes patiently and it by no means passed off to him that the federal government is not going to give his publish again once more.

Weber’s objective, then again, was once to outline the crucial options of recent organizations and to signify why those organizations labored such a lot higher than conventional ones. Let us read about the options that Weber present in bureaucracies.

Above all, Weber emphasised that bureaucratic organizations had been an try to subdue human affairs to the rule of thumb of reason-to make it imaginable to behavior the trade of the group “according to calculable rules.” For individuals who advanced trendy organizations, the aim was once to seek out rational answers to the brand new issues of dimension Weber noticed paperwork because the rational made of social engineering, simply because the machines of the Industrial Revolution had been the rational merchandise of mechanical engineering. He wrote:

The decisive motive for the development of bureaucratic group has all the time been its purely technical superiority over any former group. The absolutely advanced bureaucratic mechanism compares with different organizations precisely as does the gadget with non-mechanical modes of manufacturing( Coser, 1969)

For Weber the time period paperwork was once inseparable from the time period rationality. And we would possibly talk of his thought as a “rational bureaucracy” But what had been the options advanced to make bureaucracies rational? Namely, they’re: (1) practical specialization (2) transparent traces of hierarchical authority, (3) knowledgeable coaching of managers, and (4) determination making in line with laws and techniques advanced to ensure constant and efficient pursuit of organizational targets.

Weber famous further options of rational bureaucracies which might be easy extensions of the 4 simply defined, To be certain knowledgeable control, appointment and promotion are in line with benefit somewhat than favoritism, and the ones appointed deal with their positions as full-time, number one careers.

Quite the opposite within the novel, whilst Villaamil is probably the most upright, fair, sensible and obedient to the federal government, that he even labored within the Philippines when he was once nonetheless new within the civil provider on the age of twenty 4 however has to go back to the mainland as a result of he was once affected by dysentery. In whole distinction, his son-in-law, who married his favorite daughter Luisa, was once all the time promoted although had questionable transactions within the executive. All the allegations towards him had been disregarded on account of his appeal and connection. According to the place of work gossip He is the favorite of the aunt of a prime within the executive, briefly, the girl has a super affect within the executive. It is known as the petticoat affect. Without the influential lady going to the place of work, Victor, as a secret lover of the matron, secured his promotion in spite of his alleged plunder and malversation of presidency finances.

Similarly, even different officers the place Villaamil was once operating, the entire unquestionable officers with their integrity and capability had been simply promoted, whilst the fair males like him are suspended.

To be certain order in determination making, paperwork is carried out basically thru written laws data, and communications. This is vividly described within the novel a number of instances. Rank and document and officers as smartly are all the time on their desks for his or her trade transactions, therefore, growing the purple tape. But, when the officers are out, expectedly, the place of work staff don’t seem to be in any respect operating. They are noticed speaking, consuming or even jesting each and every different. One time when Villaamil visited the place of work, he noticed that the place of work staff had been simply speaking throughout place of work hours. The lame Guillen would even draw caricatures that even Villaamil was once sarcastically attacked with a disgusting description of his poverty. But when Pandora, his buddy, the reliable, arrives the place of work, hypocritically, staff go back to paintings.

Weber’s thought of practical specialization applies each to individuals inside of a company and to family members between greater gadgets or divisions of the group. In the federal government of Villaamil, paintings was once damaged down into many particular duties, and workers had been assigned to 1 or a couple of such duties, together with the duties fascinated by coordinating the paintings of others. (Such coordination is known as management or control.) Weber argued that such specialization is very important to a rational paperwork and that the precise obstacles setting apart one practical department from every other will have to be fastened through specific laws, laws, and procedures. Villaamil by no means noticed it when he was once already suspended. But issues gave the impression proper when he was once nonetheless within the publish. His fair and contented angle in paintings would best permit him to paintings and paintings with out giving himself in rumour-mongering. As an issue of truth, Villaamil’s proposal with an acronym of MIAU, consistent with him, was once painstakingly conceptualized and studied for ten years. But now not for different characters. They had been his exact opposite.

For Weber it was once self-evident that coordinating the divisions of enormous organizations calls for transparent traces of authority arranged in a hierarchy. That way there are transparent “levels of graded authority.” All workers within the group will have to know who their boss is, and each and every particular person must all the time recognize the chain of command; this is, other people must give orders best to their very own subordinates and obtain orders best thru their very own fast awesome In this manner, the folks on the most sensible can make sure that directives arrive the place they’re intended to move and know the place obligations lie. This thought within the novel was once tainted with favouritism or nepotism. Their focal point is directed to the reliable and now not on their paintings, therefore their patronage for them in a different way, they’re going to now not be promoted and won’t get a elevate within the wage. Victor did this a number of instances through rubbing elbows with the officers through flattering them, or through hooking wealthy and influential ladies together with his good-looking appears to be like.

Furthermore, hierarchical authority is needed in bureaucracies in order that extremely skilled mavens can he correctly used as managers. Rational bureaucracies may also be operated, Weber argued, best through deploying managers in any respect ranges which were decided on and skilled for his or her particular jobs. Persons ticketed for most sensible positions in bureaucracies are continuously turned around thru many divisions of a company to achieve firsthand enjoy of the various issues that their long term subordinates will have to face. Ironically, all this bureaucratic fashions that Weber conceptualized weren’t dutifully practiced through the entire characters apart from through Villaamil himself and in all probability Pantoja and the younger Cucurbita.

Finally, Weber wired that rational bureaucracies will have to be controlled based on sparsely advanced laws and ideas that may be discovered and implemented and that transactions and choices will have to be recorded in order that laws can he reviewed. Only with such laws and ideas can the actions of loads of managers at other ranges within the group be predicted and coordinated. If we can not expect what others will do, then we can not rely on them.

Weber’s ideas of paperwork are rational and practical however actually and in observe, are all idealistic. The other people within the machine had been taught to be gadget that may do as they had been instructed. The novel Miau simply confirmed the exact opposite. Because they’re all human within the paperwork, they’re all liable to human weaknesses, frailties and disdain for laws.

And with the entire irony of bureaucratic machine within the novel, our protagonist was once utterly suffering from “the inhuman machine-like character of this bureaucracy”(Soileau, 2006). The results may also be gleaned on financial, bodily, mental, ethical and religious aftermath that affected and destroyed Señor Ramon De Villaamil.

First is financial. When Villaamil was once suspended, he changed into extra mindful of the loss of meals to consume at the desk, if now not the absence of it. It resulted additional to humiliating himself through begging to his former clerks and pals within the executive. His suspension within the executive intended the absence of wage, the absence of cash. His best pleasure, his grandson Luis, was once a tender witness to his struggling. Meanwhile, his insensitive and hypocrite spouse, Dona Pura, would make a technique to to find meals at the desk only for the day. According to Villaamil, she cherished stunning issues that may lead them to glance wealthy, stunning curtains, stunning lecture room, that Villaamil’s wage at the first day of the month is already spent at the day it’s gained. With this financial downfall, his daughter Abelarda and sister-in-law Milagros, at the side of his spouse, known as the 3 Miaus, for they resemble the face of a cat, or pussy-faced, consistent with Luis’ classmates, would nonetheless to find time to observe on the theatre socializing with the actual wealthy.

Second is bodily. Many of Villaamil’s former colleagues spotted his age, his emaciated face and the disappointment he emanated each time he would talk over with the place of work. The suspension utterly misplaced his urge for food, except the reality there was once actually not anything to consume, has made his frame skinny. That consistent with Dona Pura, he will have to be sensible and stylish if he sought after to get again his publish. N the tip of the unconventional, his vulnerable frame would all the time stumble at the rocks of the mountains, at the edges of the desk in his area and may just now not even final to hold his grandson Luis. This horrible impact was once felt through his unsuspecting frame.

Third is mental. In the dizzying maze of paperwork, his impatience for the reinstatement, his financial and bodily crises, certainly, driven him to mental abnormality. Many instances, he would blame to an unseen evil pressure, that he suspected, could be at the back of the explanation why he was once now not reinstated. Several events would turn out that he would live on pessimism and negativism: “Don’t come to me with optimism and tricks. I tell you again and again that I will never get back to work. I have no hope, none.”; likewise he stated They may not give me my task again till the afternoon of the day of judgment.”; Villaamil sank more and more into his pessimism, reaching the extreme of saying ‘We’ll see the sun come up in the west before you’ll see me go back to work.'”; “I didn’t have any illusions and that’s not the way”, stated don Ramon, elevating his arms nearly to the ceiling, “I never had any hope. I never believed that they would give me my job and I will never believe it.”; and, God does not lend a hand somebody however the crooks. Do you suppose I be expecting the rest from the Ministry or from God? Everyone is identical… above and under farces, favoritism.'”. All those he uttered to others however most commonly to himself (inner monologue). Since he had not more face to his out of doors global, even his within global within the circle of relatives, he utterly misplaced all keep an eye on to live on and are living.

His loss of ethical turpitude on what’s just right and proper interspersed together with his non-public religious connection to God was once utterly misplaced within the final two chapters within the novel. It will have been a wry humor within the tale however bites one within the judgment of right and wrong when the outdated, suspended, mad Villaamil was once working clear of the circle of relatives and Mendizabal, his neighbour, who had been on the lookout for him. He was once taking part in, like a kid, the hide-and-seek that intended to save lots of him from his ultimate demise.

But, it sort of feels that, there’s a Dostoyevskian trust in Villaamil that insanity is a trail to divine inspiration (Cohen, 1963:5). In his majestic determine within the cliff, like Jesus when he was once tempted through the satan to throw himself to the intensity, he discovered power in his new freedom. He was once utterly indifferent from truth. He even made a motto for his demise which was once: “A foul death to the whole universe” ( which in Spanish the initials are MIAU-“Muerte. Infamante.Al Universo”). He loved the speculation of now not considering for cash anymore; that he would unfastened himself from the pretentious, hypocrite and materialistic Miaus and handed them onto Ponce, the longer term husband of Abelarda who inherited a super sum from an uncle who simply died, that he would now not maintain the publish anymore for higher is to be with God. He comforted himself through having a look and chatting with the birds. Those birds had been surviving with out to fret on what they might consume and so would he.

And with that false trust if now not unsuitable perception of spirituality (as Luis instructed him in regards to the apparition that God would get his grandfather) he shot himself… and the shot echoed within the solitude of that darkish and abandoned position. Villaamil gave a horrible jump, his head plunged into the moving earth, and he rolled instantly down into the gulf. He retained the awareness just for sufficient time to mention: “well… it did…”

In conclusion, our protagonist, who can also be thought to be a sad persona, within the maze of paperwork the place it has appreciated the folks at the foundation of favoritism, nepotism, “petticoat influence”, closeness, patronage of the officers, abuse may also be noticed, if now not felt, through Villaamil, his circle of relatives and his grandson. Villaamil will have to were promoted in line with his deserves, {qualifications}, honesty and integrity on his paintings. This abuse, which resulted in his suspension, affected him economically, bodily, psychologically, morally and spiritually and brutally put himself to demise.


Cohen, J. M.(tr). (1966). Miau. Baltimore: Penguin Books Ltd.

Coser, Lewis A. and Bernard Rosenberg (eds). Sociological Theory: A Book of Readings.

London: The Macmillan Company.

Gerth, H. H. and C. Wright Mills. (1961). From Max Weber: essays in Sociology.

New York: Oxford University Press.

Soileau, Clany. (2006). Money and Tragedy within the Nineteenth Century Novels.


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