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What Makes a Person Intelligent?
In traditional theories of intelligence, when asked, “What makes a person intelligent?” the most common answers often note the individual’s problem-solving ability, logic, and critical thinking. These characteristic features of intelligence are sometimes grouped under the heading of “raw intelligence.” A person’s intelligence traditionally resides in his intellect. In other words, how we all understand, evaluate, or respond to external stimuli, whether it’s a math problem or predicting an opponent’s next move in a game, is our collective intelligence. Our intelligence is our individual, collective ability to act or react in a constantly changing environment.
The main problem with traditional theories of intelligence is that they promote ‘broken learning’. Many educational reformers have clearly stated that “taking tests merely shows that the student is proficient in taking the tests.” At best, traditional tests only focus on about one-tenth of an individual’s intellect. Note that Albert Einstein and Thomas Edison, two of history’s most famous examples of brilliant minds, performed horribly on traditional tests, so in “school” in general. The theory of multiple intelligences thus proves that the ability to pass traditional tests belongs almost entirely to the logical-mathematical realm.
intelligence. This intelligence is detailed later, along with interpersonal intelligence, which gives some students the ability to second-guess how the teacher structures the test. Traditional IQ tests predict school performance with considerable accuracy, but are only indifferent predictors of performance in formal post-school occupations.
In an interesting but controversial study conducted in the 1960s by biologist Marion Diamond of the University of California, Berkeley, two rats were raised in different environments; One set had toys to play with, playmates to joke with, and a spacious box that was kept clean and fresh. The second set was placed in solitary confinement; alone in a much smaller cage with no toys. After a few weeks, Diamond measured the size of each rat’s cerebral cortex, the area of the brain responsible for higher neural functions. The brains of rats in a sociable, clean and stimulating environment grew larger than rats in an impoverished environment. “Does an enriched environment increase brain size and a depleted environment decrease brain size?” Diamond asked. – The answer is clearly YES. Similar results were repeated with cats, monkeys and later with humans. So a stimulating, rich learning environment is key to mental development. If we include different student intelligences in our teaching activities, our success and the success of our students will improve significantly. That we all have all intelligences, all of which can be improved, that these multiple intelligences work together in complex ways, and that there are actually many ways to be “intelligent” is contained in a study. Armstrong. Here, in retrospect, are the eight main intelligences of Howard Gardener’s theory and their relative qualities:
The ability to use words effectively, either orally or in writing. It is highly developed among storytellers, orators, politicians, poets, playwrights, editors, language teachers and journalists. Students with this intelligence think in words; learn by listening, reading and verbalizing. They like writing, such as books, records, and tapes, and have a good memory for poems, lyrics, or trivia. Entering into arguments, joking and arguing are also characteristics of this intelligence. Maya Angelou is strong in this intelligence.
The ability to perceive the world accurately and to make transformations on those perceptions. It is highly developed by guides, interior designers, architects, artists, fashion designers and inventors. Students with high spatial intelligence think in pictures and images, such as mazes and jigsaw puzzles. They like to draw and design things, enjoy movies, slides, videos, diagrams, maps, charts. This intelligence includes dreamers and those who have strong opinions about things like matching colors, appropriate, pleasing, and decorative textures. Pablo Picasso was strong in this intelligence.
Musical – rhythmic intelligence: The ability to perceive, distinguish, transform and express musical forms is most developed in music performers, music fans and music critics. Students with a high degree of musical intelligence learn through rhythm and melody, play an instrument, or may need music to learn. They notice non-verbal sounds in the environment: crickets chirping, rain on the roof, changing traffic patterns, and generally learn things more easily when sung, tapped or whistled. These people love music and rhythmic patterns and can often reproduce a melody or rhythmic pattern after hearing it just once. Different sounds, voices and rhythms can have a visible effect on them (ie we can see a change in facial expressions, body movement or emotional reactions). They enjoy singing and listening to a variety of music, and are often very good at imitating voices, language accents, and the speech patterns of others, as well as recognizing different instruments in a composition. Paul McCartney is strong in this intelligence.
Ability to use numbers effectively and reason well. This intelligence is highly developed among mathematicians, tax accountants, statisticians, scientists, computer programmers, and logicians. Students with high intelligence often explain things logically and clearly; look for abstract patterns and connections; they often like puzzles, logic puzzles and strategy games. They also like to use computers, classify and categorize. These people think conceptually and abstractly and are able to see patterns and relationships that others often miss. They like to experiment, solve puzzles and other problems, ask cosmic questions and think. They like the challenge of complex problems to solve and always have a logical reason or argument for what they do or think. Albert Einstein was strong in this intelligence.
Bodily-kinesthetic intelligence: Consists of the ability to use the whole body to express ideas and feelings, and to use the hands to produce or transform things. Highly developed intelligence in actors, mimes, athletes, dancers, sculptors, mechanics and surgeons. Students with a high degree of bodily-kinesthetic intelligence process knowledge through bodily sensations; they can move, jerk, tap or fidget while sitting in a chair or desk and learn through touch, manipulation and movement. They typically enjoy role-playing and creative movement, and generally enjoy all kinds of physical play and being shown how to do something. They communicate well with body language and other physical gestures. They are often only able to complete a task when they see someone else do it. They find it difficult to sit still for long periods of time and get bored easily if they are not actively involved in the events around them. Michael Jordan is strong in this intelligence.
The ability to perceive and distinguish other people’s moods, intentions, motivations, and feelings. This intelligence may include sensitivity to facial expressions, voice, and gestures, and the ability to respond effectively to such cues. Students with high interpersonal intelligence understand and care about people; they like to socialize; they learn more easily and teach other students well through relationships and collaboration. These people learn through personal interaction. They usually have many friends; they show great empathy for others and understand different points of view. Able to involve others in discussion, conflict resolution and mediation when people are radical
confrontation with each other. Mother Teresa and Mahatma Gandhi were strong in this intelligence.
Self-awareness and the ability to act adaptively based on this knowledge define this group. It is an intelligence that can include an accurate picture of your strengths and limitations, an awareness of your moods and motivations, and the ability to exercise self-discipline. Students with high intelligence appear to be self-motivated; they need their own quiet space; you can march to the beat of another drummer and learn more easily with self-study, self-paced instruction, personalized projects and games.
These people like to work alone and are sometimes afraid of others. They are self-reflective and self-aware, so they tend to be in tune with their inner feelings, values, beliefs and thought processes. Often carriers of creative wisdom and insight, they are highly intuitive and intrinsically motivated rather than needing external rewards to survive. They are often strong-willed, confident and decisive, with well-thought-out opinions on almost any issue (though sometimes off-the-wall). Others often turn to them for advice and counsel, but others sometimes find them aloof or strange. Emily Dickinson and Stephen King are examples of this intelligence.
Environmental knowledge and the ability to identify and categorize plants, animals and nature based on this knowledge. Naturalistic intelligence can include an accurate picture of the environmental environment, an awareness of the interaction of natural elements, and the ability to self-analyze these elements. It is most advanced among archaeologists, zookeepers, animal breeders, veterinarians, biologists, racehorses, zoologists, environmentalists, wildlife guides, and naturalists. Students with naturalist intelligence appear to be nature-oriented, want to be outdoors or in the elements, and learn more easily through nature-related academic and environmental projects and activities. They like to collect objects from nature, study them, group them. They are usually aware of subtleties of appearance, texture, and sound that cannot be grasped by those less intelligent. Charles Darwin, Jacques Cousteau and John James Audubon were strong in this intelligence.
One of the great promises of the theory of multiple intelligences in education is that it helps us find individual paths into and out of our students’ minds. The latest developments in educational psychology and applied AI theory research offer educators a real opportunity to unlock the potential inherent in each student. Both educators and students should come from Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences, that each person learns differently, and that this diversity should be respected, valued, and nurtured.
Reference website for more intelligence links and activities:
Discovering Multiple Intelligences: New Dimensions of Learning
More intelligence resources
Basic AI theory
Multiple intelligence theory: basic principles
Multiple Intelligences: Theory and Practice in the K-12 Classroom
Task Card Review/More Intelligence
Association for the Advancement and Promotion of Scientific Educational Activities website – http://discoverlearning.com/forensic/docs/index.html
Naturalist Intelligence – Sea World / Busch Gardens website for students
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